Laparoscopy or laparoscopic surgery has become an alternative to conventional or classical: biliary tract surgery, gastroesophageal reflux, management of acute abdomen (diagnostic or therapeutic) are widely accepted by the surgical community.Its spread has been due, for having demonstrated decreased pain and cosmetic deformities and significant cost savings by reducing hospital stay and allow early return to work without the expense of safety and comfort of the patient.
The importance of internal examination of body compartments, has been recognized for centuries. It began with the Arab physician Abulkasin and primitive system for exploration of the uterine cervix.
The call of Georg Kelling laparoscopy allowed the exploration of the abdominal cavity of a dog with a cystoscope (which acted as a laparoscope). Jacobeus presented in 1911 at laparoscopy experience in various human pathologies.
The limitations to these laparoscopic explorations were conditioned by anesthetic and technological shortcomings. Innovations and technological improvements such as needle insufflation, designed by Verres, automatic inflation mechanisms Semm, and the introduction of cold light source.
Hasson technique or open laparoscopy has spread to minimize the risk of injury to organs in the abdominal cavity. The development in 1986 of a television camera with a computerized chip attached to the laparoscope, began the era of video directed surgery, allowing several people to participate in the intervention and the techniques may be more complex, with the ability to record on video operation to the learning of other surgeons.
Currently the video image and improvements in instrumentation and expertise in diagnosis and staging events have made therapeutic laparoscopy in gastrointestinal disease a reality in the last decade. The acceptance of this technology and its applications have been greatly developed. Now in 2006, which was a reluctance to accept the laparoscopy, has become a growing interest in developing new surgical techniques, in part due to accumulated experience in dealing with various digestive diseases and improving the material technology available to us.