Obesity is a multifactorial disease, characterized by excessive deposition of body fat. To measure the degree of obesity using the Body Mass Affects (BMI), calculated by dividing weight in kilograms by height in meters squared.
The severity of obesity is related to the BMI and associated diseases such as hypertension. Cardiovascular disease, hypercholesterolemia, type II diabetes, sleep-related disorders, ostearticulares problems, psychological disorders.
Obesity - Questions and answers
What is bariatric surgery?
It is a specialty of surgery for the surgical treatment of patients with extreme degrees of obesity. Such operations are performed on the digestive system, in some cases reducing the size of the stomach to reduce food intake and other associate also a procedure on the small intestine to limit absorption of nutrients .. No plastic surgery or cosmetic. The aim is to avoid the complications of obesity through a sustained weight loss.
Who is a candidate for this surgery?
One patient who meets the criteria and has been valued by the team of specialists (endocrinologist, psychologist, surgeon). These requirements are related to body mass index (BMI), associated diseases, age and the absence of other factors that contraindicate surgery. By the patient is fundamental to be motivated, knowledgeable, and accept the commitment to follow the doctor-diet for life.
Surgical procedures for obesity.
The morbidly obese is that is 45 kilos or more overweight is considered normal or ideal, but also when disease is added, it is considered morbidly obese from 35 BMI (body mass index). The importance of morbid obesity is that it is a serious disease risk to life, with two times more likely to die than a normal person.
This disease with medical treatment is very unsatisfactory results, since most patients have followed numerous diets, medications and all kinds of multidisciplinary programs, and if they lose a few kilos of weight, more than recovering soon. While diets may be useful in the short term in mild obesity and less than 10% of patients, long-term effectiveness has not been demonstrated. In severe and morbid obesity, five years, no diet has shown comparable results to those obtained by surgery. Exercise improves the psychology of fat, helping to maintain the diet. The drugs are of dubious effectiveness not without additional risk if used long term.
Operation indicated and accepted by the patient, you must report some respects: It is a major abdominal surgery, with a mortality risk of 1-2% and major complications up to 10%.
The type of surgery can be performed is gastric bypass, vertical gastroplasty, gastric banding. Surgery can be open or laparoscopic. However, the laparoscopic approach offers all the benefits of minimally invasive surgery, ie, less pain, faster recovery, with a drastic decrease in the rate of incisional hernias (up to 20% in open surgery) and the low rate wound infection (reaching up to 17% in open surgery).
The laparoscopic gastric bypass is a technique which leaves a small stomach, which plugs directly into the small intestine, food passes directly to him, bypaseando a large segment of small intestine and decreasing caloric absorption. It reduces the amount of food that the patient can still eat smaller stomach makes you feel full quickly. His appetite is also reduced and thus begin to lose weight. The surgeon laparoscopy can explore, cutting, sewing, remove and splice without opening the abdominal cavity or perform unnecessary scars, conditioning less or no postoperative pain, recovery and being incorporated into the usual activities more quickly. Obese people are the main beneficiaries of these laparoscopic techniques, which will allow to operate them without opening the abdominal cavity, the patient is admitted to the hospital after surgery for 3-4 days, being able to live normally 2-4 weeks depending on the type of surgery, and the work you do.
Gastric bypass is a weight loss of 65-70% overweight at five years, the weight loss is more significant in the first year after surgery. The other techniques have inferior results. During the first month of operation recommended diet is based on: puree, sauce, soups and broths and any liquids. After the first two months the patient starts solid foods gradually, even including vegetables, seafood and fruits, a few months after the operation the patient eats almost anything, but in small quantities by the prompt action of sensation of satiety. Many patients with laparoscopic gastric bypass have been incorporated to normal activity and even work a week after undergoing surgery. The progressive loss of weight makes it feasible and active social life that was once unthinkable, coupled with a change of mind to check the new body image that allows recreational and cultural activities "reunited with society and himself" what which makes the surgery in the treatment of obesity is currently unquestionable.